This study was conducted to characterize Iraqi indigenous chicken breeds morphologically. Six breeds named Barred (BA), Brown (BR), Black (BL), White (WH), white neck-naked (WH-NA), and Brown neck-naked (BR-NA), reared on-station were studied. Data on morphological properties were collected from 300 females and 150 males at 33 weeks of age randomly chosen from the base popula-tion. Descriptive statistics, frequency, and cross-tabulation were used to analyze the qualitative morphological variables. A two-way analysis of variance was con-ducted to analyze the effect of breed and sex on quantitative measurements. All chickens (100%) exhibited normal feather morphology and no silky or curly (frizzle) was observed. The distribution of the plumage is mainly characteristic normal, four breeds were shown normal and two breeds were characteristics as naked-neck, (66.7% normal and 33.3% naked-neck). The white, black, and barred breeds showed similarities between hens and roosters except for the male brown breed where colors are combined with other feather colors, mainly on wings, back, and tail. Skin color was mainly white and occurred in five breeds (P=100 percent) except brown naked-neck appeared in 66.7% of the population as red skin color. Males and females of BA chickens exhibited significantly higher body circumference, body length, shank length, neck length, and wingspan compared to other breeds. The lowest body characteristics were shown in WH, WH-NA, and BR-NA. The average BW of adultmales and females varied signifi-cantly among the populations. Females of BA populations.
Sesame the oil-based seed crop Sesamum indicum L. has been widely planted and consume in Iraq. Unfortunately, sesame seeds are particularly susceptible to different infectious agents especially fungi in the field specially if stored improperly. Using culture and immunological approaches, the current study tried to analyze the ochratoxigenic potential of several Aspergillus and Penicillium isolates from sesame samples in Duhok city. The results showed the isolation of 24 fungal species belong to 14 genera with number of sterile mycelia and yeasts, also showed the potency of 17 isolates of Aspergillus and Penicillium to produce OTA. Ochratoxin A (OTA) were detected in cultures of six species of section nigri (A.carbonarius and A.niger aggregate), one of Aspergillus section circumdati species (A .ochraceus) and one species of Penicillium (P.verrucosum). OTA was found at level from 0.63 to 0.70 ng\ml in A.carbonarius isolates; from 0.60 to 0.64 ng\ml in A.niger aggreg. isolates; in P.verrucosum from 0.52 to 0.61 ng\ml and in A.ochraceus isolates 0.23 -0.62 ng\ml while none of both A.sclerotiorum, A.japonicus isolate produce. According to our findings, the occurrence of ochratoxigenic Aspergillus and Penicillium isolates in sesame seed samples poses a specific risk to consumer health.
The present study carried out to classify Salvia species growing in Iraq using pollen grains morphology. Plants of the seven test species collected from Anbar some of and some of Kurdistan Region between May and June 2021. All species were wild type with the exception of S. officinalis, which is cultivated in AR-Ramadi district. Light microscope (LM) and scanning electron Microscope (SEM) examinations revealed significant variations among pollen grains of the test species; the pollen grains of the test species found to be different in size ranged between medium and small; the shapes of pollen grains varied from suboblate to prolate; pollen grains of all test species was hexacolpate. The surface ornamentation was important in distinguishing some species, as the studied species were divided into two groups according to type of ornamentation, which was either reticulate or bireticulate. The bireticulate was the most common type of surface ornament in mesocolpium, while reticulate was the most common type of surface ornament in apocolpium. The present results provided useful pollen grains properties for species identification.
Application of pesticides on vegetables will protect them from pest injury, but in another hand will hold pesticide residues in vegetables. These residues have harmful effect against all consumers. In the present study, we took imidacloprid insecticide, because it used widely for combatant vegetable insect control in Iraq. Median lethal dose (LD50) for imidacloprid pesticide was determinant by using Probit analytical method. The evaluation of toxicity carried out by taking 1/10, 1/100, and 1/10000 from the LD50 of imidacloprid insecticide. Orally administration of determinant doses applied on albino mice using gavage-tube for 30 days as sub-chronic exposure. We took both biochemical and hematological parameters, as indicators for insecticide toxicity. The histopathological study been carried out for liver, kidney, and spleen after we sacrifice the mice of each group separately in the end of the sub- chronic orally administration period. ANOVA statistical test carried out for results of imidacloprid biochemical and hematological results. The results varied based on kind of parameters and concentrations, low concentrations dose 1/10, 1/100 and 1/10000 from LD50 has the same or even more adversely effect towards targeted organs, the reason for that attitude due to bio- accumulation effect and the inability of low dose for stimulate the defense systems of body like superoxide dismutase(SOD), whereas, intermediate and high dose concentration able to stimulate body defense systems like SOD.